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Place Types

Map-Marker (Icon) Definition

Access Arch

For the purposes of this website, an 'Access Arch' is an archway (or related series of adjacent archways) pierced through a defensive wall to facilitate access after the need for defensive walls and gateways had passed. Prior to modern times, access arches did not have any form of gate or barrier fitted. However, bollards, barriers or other such devices may have been installed in recent times (for example, to facilitate traffic management or to restrict access through arches that do not span a public right of way or a permissive route). Some Access Arches are located on the site of (and / or have replaced) an earlier Defensive Gateway. Where this is the case, both place types have been assigned.


A building constructed or adapted by a local philanthropist to provide rent-free or low rent accomodation to poor, elderly and / or infirm members of a community.

Art Gallery

For the purposes of this website, the term "Art Gallery" is applied to any permanent building or site that is dedicated to the public display of physical artwork solely or primarily for leisure and / or educational purposes. These sites may be home to permanent collections and / or temporary exhibitions and the nature of the artwork may include drawings, paintings, sculptures, ceramics, photographs, lithographs, and / or any other physical artform.


A bridge (i.e. a spanning structure) that is useful for access / navigational purposes or is noteworthy due to its age, history, visual impact and / or use as a viewpoint.

Church or Other Religious Structure

A minster, cathedral, church, chapel or other religious structure that may be of interest to visitors for architectural, visual and / or historical reasons.

Defensive Earthwork

An artifical earthwork (or a series of related earthworks) constructed solely or primarily for defensive purposes around a settlement, building or group of buildings. Includes mottes, mounds, banks (ramparts), ditches and moats.

Defensive Gateway

For the purposes of this website, a 'Defensive Gateway' is a fortified or otherwise stregthened gate or door through a defensive perimeter wall designed to facilitate and control access without compromising security. Typical variants include:

  • Bar: i.e. a primary gateway (with or without an adjoining barbican) inserted into a defensive wall.
  • Postern: a secondary gateway through a defensive wall.
  • Sally Port: a doorway or small gateway (often hidden or disguised) through a defensive wall to facilitate clandestine escape and / or sorties to harass surrounding troops during a seige / attack.

Records show that, during periods of increased tension (such as 1569, 1642-4, and 1745), the posterns in York were temporarily blocked with earth and stones.

Some Defensive Gateways have been completely replaced by a later Access Arch. Where this is the case, both place types have been assigned.


Defensive Tower: Castle Keep

A substantial  tower (or the visible remains of a tower) forming the heart of a defensive castle and constructed solely or primarily for defensive purposes.

Defensive Tower: Corner Tower

A tower integrated into a defensive wall at a location where that wall changes direction sharply. Constructed to increase the strength and effectivess of the wall for defensive purposes. Sometimes referred to as an 'Angle Tower'.

Defensive Tower: Interval Tower

A tower integrated into a long section of defensive wall. Constructed to increase the strength and effectivess of that wall for defensive purposes. (Excludes Corner Towers, Postern Towers and Terminal Towers.)

Defensive Tower: Postern Tower

A tower located beside a postern (i.e. a minor gateway through the city walls) to defend and control access through that postern.

Defensive Tower: Terminal Tower

For the purposes of this website, a 'terminal tower' is a defensive tower that is located at (or very close to) the end of a section of defensive wall. Terminal towers were built to strengthen the defences in what would otherwise be a very vulnerable area - i.e. to prevent attackers, intruders, etc. from simply going around the end of the wall.

Terminal towers were often constructed where a section of defensive wall meets a body of water, a cliff edge, or some other natural barrier that made the continuation of the wall either impossible or unnecessary.

Defensive Wall

A masonry wall constructed around a setttlement, building or group of buildings for defensive purposes.

Historic Abbey, Priory, Convent, etc.

For the purposes of this website, the classification "Historic Abbey, Priory, Convent, etc." is applied to any site that is or once was used by a religious community (e.g. monks, nuns or friars), where the complete or ruined structural remains have been conserved and may be viewed by the members of the public.

i-spy detail

An "i-spy detail" is a minor point of interest that the young (and the 'young at heart') may enjoy seeking-out during a sightseeing visit.

Memorial, Monument, Statue, etc.

A public memorial, monument, statue, or similar structure. Includes war memorials.

Museum or Heritage Centre

For the purposes of this website, the classification "Museum or Heritage Centre" is applied to any permanent building or site that is dedicated to the public display of objects of historical, scientific and / or cultural interest. These sites may be home to permanent collections and / or temporary exhibitions and the objects may be displayed under cover and / or outside in the open air. In most cases, a fee is payable to access the musuem.


A building constructed specifically to house an astronomical telescope and used to observe moons, planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae and other space bodies.

Other Noteworthy Building

A building that is noteworthy for architectural and / or historical reasons, regardless of any other categorisation that may also apply.

Park or Garden

A designated public park, garden or landscaped outdoor area that is open to the general public for leisure, recreational and / or educational purposes.

Playground for Children

An area set aside solely or primarily as a children's playground, play area, skateboard park, etc.

Public Library

A building that is currently used exclusively or primarily as a public library and / or local history archive.


The land area adjacent to a quay, wharf, staith or other waterfront loading / unloading point.

Railway Station

A railway station served by a regular public passenger service operating as part of Britain's National Rail Network.

Riverside Walk

For the purposes of this website, a riverside walk is public right of way or permissive route that runs alongside a river and that offers visitors an opportunity for an interesting and enjoyable walk.

Safety Advice

A walk beside a river can provide a pleasant interlude in an otherwise hectic sightseeing itinerary. However, care must be taken to mitigate against the hazards. For example:

  • Read and heed any official notices, especially those relating to route closures.
  • Do NOT attempt to use a riverside route during - or shortly after - periods of flooding.
  • Be aware that riverside routes can be slippery when wet, especially after periods of flooding. Also, be aware that any puddles may be deeper than you expect.
  • If the path is unsurfaced, take extra care to avoid trip hazards such as tree roots and uneven ground.
  • Keep dogs and young children under control and well away from the water's edge.
  • NEVER enter the water, not even to 'dip a toe' or to 'have a quick paddle'.
  • Be aware of, and be considerate towards other users of the route, especially where the route is also used by cycles and / or other road traffic.

Settlement (City)

For the purposes of this website, a 'city' is defined as a settlement that has been granted city status by the British monarch. Cities are typically, but not always, relatively large in terms of population and / or land area covered. In England and Wales, city status was traditionally granted to towns with Anglican diocesan cathedrals, but this link was broken in 1889. Since then, city status can be conferred on any towns that are considered by the Britsh Monarch (on the advice of the Lord Chancellor) to be:

"of the first rank in population, size and importance, and having a distinctive character and identity of their own".

Source: Memorandum issued by the Home Office in July 1927 to the Earl of Onslow, chairman of the Royal Commission on Local Government.


A visually attractive and / or historically interesting road, street, square, yard, alley, path or similar public urban space with 'free' (i.e. no cost) access for pedestrians. While most of the 'streetscapes' listed on this website are public rights of way, some may be 'permissive' routes where access is only permitted during specified times and / or subject to specified conditions. Where access restrictions for pedestrians are known to apply, details are provide within the text (usually in the 'Practical Information' section).


A viewpoint is a geographic location that offers an attractive and / or interesting view. It may be it a panoramic view of the surrounding cityscape from an elevated vantage point, a picturesque vista that inspires artististic endeavours, a natural feature that instills a sense of awe and wonder, or a man-made structure that begs the questions who, what, when, or why. In the words of the Welsh poet W. H. Davies (1871-1940):


What is this life if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.

No time to stand beneath the boughs
And stare as long as sheep or cows.

No time to see, when woods we pass,
Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.

No time to see, in broad daylight,
Streams full of stars, like skies at night.

No time to turn at Beauty's glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance.

No time to wait till her mouth can
Enrich that smile her eyes began.

A poor life this if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.

Wall Walk Access Point

A location where the walkway along the City Wall can be accessed by the general public during specified times subject to weather conditions, maintenance, etc.


For the purposes of this website, the term "Watermill" is applied to any building constructed or modified specifically to grind flour, manufacture textiles or perform some other industrial process using the rotational force generated by flowing water (via a water wheel or water turbine).

Waterway Lock or Moveable Barrier

A lock or moveable barrier designed to create or maintain a difference in water level from one side to the other and / or to help boats navigate such a change in level.